How Does a Power Distribution Substation Work

Submitted by Kristian on Sat, 07/01/2023 - 10:08

Power distribution substations are essential components of the national electricity grid, ensuring the safe and efficient transmission and distribution of electricity. These specialized facilities transform electricity into different voltages required for communication across the country and delivery to homes, businesses, and other structures. This article will explore the workings of power distribution substations and their role in the overall electricity network.

Power Distribution Substation

The Function of Electric Substations

A primary function of substations is voltage conversion, which is vital for transmitting electricity throughout the country and into various establishments. Substations house specialized equipment, such as transformers, that facilitate voltage transformation or "switching."

Transformers are electrical devices that transfer electrical energy via changing magnetic fields. They comprise two or more wire coils wrapped around a metallic core, with the number of coil wraps affecting the voltage change. This process enables a voltage to increase or decrease as needed.

Substation transformers serve different purposes in voltage conversion, depending on the electricity's stage in the transmission process.

Types of Substations and Their Roles in the Electricity Network

The two most common types of substations are transmission substations and distribution substations.

Transmission Substations

Transmission substations are located where electricity enters the power grid. The output voltage from power generators, such as power stations or wind farms, varies and must be converted to a level suitable for transmission. In the UK, voltages range between 130 kilovolts (kV) and 400kV; in the US, they can reach up to 600kV.

Electricity is typically transmitted through high-voltage, overhead power lines supported by electricity pylons. In the UK, these lines operate at either 275kV or 400kV. Adjusting the voltage accordingly ensures safe transmission to local distribution networks without significant energy loss.

Distribution Substations

Distribution substations receive electricity from the transmission system and reduce the voltage to a usable level for homes and businesses. In the UK, the voltage is lowered to around 11kV and is then carried through a distribution network of smaller overhead lines or underground cables into buildings at 240V.

Power Distribution Substation


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Additional Functions of Substations

Substations are equipped with specialized equipment that helps maintain the smooth operation of electricity transmission and distribution systems, minimizing failures and downtime.

For example, substations contain devices that prevent local network failures or power outages caused by overloads in the network. These overloads can result from mechanical failures or adverse weather conditions.

Safety Concerns Related to Substations

Concerns about the safety of living near substations and power lines due to the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) they produce have been raised. However, it is essential to note that all substations are designed to generate EMFs below independent safety guidelines established to protect against exposure. Decades of research have shown no evidence of health risks associated with EMFs below these guideline limits.

Power distribution substations play a crucial role in the national electricity grid, enabling the safe and efficient transmission and distribution of electricity. Substations are integral to providing reliable electricity to homes, businesses, and other structures by converting voltages and specialized housing equipment to ensure smooth operations. 

If you are interested in acquiring power distribution substations to suit the needs of your business, contact our team today. 

Power Distribution Substation

Contact Our Experts Today

Are you looking for a reliable and trusted power distribution substation manufacturer? Look no further than Swartz Engineering. With our expertise and commitment to excellence, we deliver top-of-the-line power distribution solutions that meet the highest industry standards.

Ready to take the next step in your power distribution project? Contact Swartz Engineering today or visit our website to learn more about our power distribution substation manufacturing capabilities. Let us provide you with the reliable and high-quality solutions you need for your power distribution needs.

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For nearly half a century, we have proudly led the industry in ensuring safety and efficiency. Swartz Engineering is a trusted family-owned company dedicated to providing top-notch power distribution solutions for the electrical industry. Contact us today.



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